The consumer Goods Forum

HEALTH & WELLNESS GLOSSARY
HEALTH

BASIC HEALTH INDICATOR

Basic Health Indicator is a characteristic of an individual, population, or environment that is subject to measurement and can be used to describe one or more aspects of the health of an individual or population (quality, quantity, and time). A health index comprises a number of indicators.

WHO

HEALTH

Health is a state of complete physical, social, and mental well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.

WHO

Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. WHO, Geneva, 1986

HEALTH LITERACY

Health literacy comprises of the cognitive and social skills that determine the motivation and ability of individuals to gain access to, understand, and use information in ways that promote and maintain good health.

WHO

Communication, Education and Participation: A Framework and Guide to Action. WHO (AMRO/PAHO), Washington, 1996

HEALTH & WELLNESS

Health & Wellness covers a broad range of topics, from healthy diets and healthy lifestyles to personal care and hygiene. Health & Wellness contributes to the physical, emotional, spiritual, intellectual, and sustainable well-being of consumers, employees, their families, and the communities we serve.

CGF HEALTH AND WELLNESS CORE TEAM

NONCOMMUNICABLE DISEASES

Noncommunicable Diseases (NCDs) are a group of conditions including cardiovascular diseases, cancers, diabetes, and chronic lung diseases; these four disease categories are responsible for the majority of deaths caused by NCDs. NCDs are largely caused by four shared behavioural risk factors that are pervasive aspects of economic transition, rapid urbanisation, and 21st-century lifestyles: tobacco use, unhealthy diet, insufficient physical activity, and the harmful use of alcohol. The broader scope of noncommunicable conditions also includes such health problems as gastrointestinal diseases, renal diseases, and neurological and mental health disorders. These conditions account for a substantial portion of the global burden of disease.

WHO

STAKEHOLDERS

CIVIL SOCIETY

There are a number of definitions for civil society.  For the purpose of our glossary we consider civil society to be a social sphere separate from both the state and the market.

WHO

PUBLIC-HEALTH

Public health refers to all organised measures (whether public or private) to prevent disease, promote health, and prolong life among the population as a whole. Its activities aim to establish conditions in which people can be healthy, and they focus on entire populations rather than individual patients or diseases.

WHO

PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS

Public-private partnerships comprise a wide variety of ventures involving a diversity of arrangements that vary with regard to participants, legal status, governance, management, policy-setting prerogatives, contributions, and operational roles.

WHO

NUTRITION

MALNUTRITION

Malnutrition is a general term for a condition of ill health caused by an improper or inadequate diet.

WHO

2009

NUTRITION

Nutrition is the provision to cells and organisms of the materials necessary (in the form of food) to support life.

WHO

2009

NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCIES

Nutritional deficiency is  an inadequate supply of essential nutrients (such as vitamins and minerals) in the diet, resulting in malnutrition or disease.

MERRIAM WEBSTER

PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION

Public health nutrition is the promotion of good health and the prevention of illness in the population through nutrition and physical activity.

EUROPEAN COMMISSION

ENERGY AND NUTRIENTS

ENERGY BALANCE

Energy balance is the balance of calories consumed through eating and drinking compared to calories burned through physical activity and other activities by the body. What you eat and drink is ENERGY IN. What you burn through physical activity is ENERGY OUT. You burn a certain number of calories just by breathing air and digesting food. You also burn a certain number of calories (ENERGY OUT) through your daily routine.

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH & HUMAN SERVICES

CARBOHYDRATE
PROTEIN
SODIUM
SUGAR(S)
FAT
SATURATED FATS
MONO-UNSATURATES
POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS
TRANS FATTY ACIDS
DIETARY FIBRE

CODEX

Please refer to Codex

PRODUCT INFORMATION

ENERGY INFORMATION

Energy information is expressed in kilocalories (calories) or kilojoules.

EUFIC

FRONT OF PACK LABELLING

In the context of this glossary, there are two general types of voluntary FOP nutrition labelling:

  1. Labelling that consists of nutrient content claims that are not part of an organised industry system; and
  2. Labelling as part of an organised industry system that provides nutrition information in a uniform manner and that is often considered a nutrient content claim.

Both types of nutrition labelling are typically regulated by national authorities. Examples of these kinds of voluntary FOP systems include: 

  1. Nutrient-specific labelling schemes. There are numerous examples of voluntary industry initiatives of this type. They include the “GDA” system in the UK, Facts Up Front in the US, interpretative schemes such as Choices International, etc.Nutrient-specific schemes sometimes include an expression of the recommended daily amount for each nutrient or of energy, based on national guidelines. Examples of recommended daily amount denotations include “GDAs” or “Guideline Daily Amounts” (UK, EU); Reference Intake (EU); or % DV or Percent Daily Value (US, Canada). Nutrient-specific labelling schemes may also contain colours denoting whether a specific nutrient represents a high, medium, or low percentage of the recommended daily amount – a variation often referred to as “traffic lights”. Interpretative schemes such as Choices International refers to a front-of-pack logo scheme that identifies a food as a “responsible choice” based on nutrition profiles defined for a number of product groups.
  1. Summary labelling schemes. These voluntary schemes have tended to be sponsored by governments and/or public health groups (Swedish Keyhole) or by individual companies (Guiding Stars, NuVal, Choices, Great for You).  Two different types of summary schemes typically found are:
  • Schemes based on nutrition criteria, in which certain foods would bear a label/seal indicating they are a good nutrition choice. This label would only appear on those foods that met the criteria.
  • Schemes based on nutrition criteria, in which all foods would bear some kind of “rating” – a number or 1-3 stars or some other designation – that provides consumers with a comparative nutrition ranking of all foods.

CGF HEALTH AND WELLNESS CORE TEAM

REFERENCE INTAKE

Reference intake is based on an average adult intake of 8400 kj/2000 Kcal. Energy and nutrients may be expressed as a percentage of reference intake based on portion.

EU REGULATION 1169/2011

NUTRITION LABELLING

Nutrition labelling is a description intended to inform the consumer of the nutritional properties of a food. Nutrition labelling consists of two components:

  1. nutrient declaration; and
  2. supplementary nutrition information.

CODEX

NUTRITION CLAIM

Nutrition claim is any representation that states, suggests, or implies that a food has particular nutritional properties, including but not limited to the energy value and to the content of protein, fat, and carbohydrates, as well as the content of vitamins and minerals.

It is important to always check national regulations for specific requirements for nutrition labelling.

CODEX

NUTRIENT CONTENT CLAIMS

A nutrient content claim is a word or phrase on a food package that makes a comment about the nutritional value of the food. The claim will mean the same for every product. The following are some approved nutrient claims.

US NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE

ON-PACK NUTRITIONAL INFORMATION

The CGF resolution on nutrition labelling calls for nutrition information on-pack per portion for the key nutrients of public health interest, as modified by national statutory or regulatory requirements.

CGF HEALTH AND WELLNESS CORE TEAM

DIET

HEALTHY DIET & LIFESTYLE

Encouraging people to move towards a diet and active lifestyle, this is in line with the national guidelines.

Examples of national guidelines include:

  • Aiming for fitness
  • Building a healthy base
  • Choosing sensibly

CGF HEALTH AND WELLNESS CORE TEAM

For example: USDA, Dietary Guidelines for Americans

BODY CARE

BODY IMAGE

Body image is a subjective picture of one’s own physical appearance established both by self-observation and by noting the reactions of others.

A positive body-image gives you self-confidence, self-awareness, self-acceptance and self-worth, whilst a negative body-image can lead to anxiety, depression, emotional distress, inferiority complex, low self-esteem and eating disorders.

MERRIAM WEBSTER

EZINE

DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS

Dietary Supplements – a preparation intended to supplement the diet and provide nutrients, such as vitamins, minerals, fibre, fatty acids, or amino acids, that may be missing or may not be consumed in sufficient quantities in a person’s diet. Some countries define dietary supplements as foods, while in others they are defined as drugs or natural health products.

DIRECTIVE 2002/46/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL

GOOD HYGIENE

Good hygiene involves properly caring for your body by keeping it clean and healthy while allowing you to look and feel your best. It is also a highly effective way for you to protect yourself from illness and infection.

EHOW

PERSONAL CARE

Products that consumers rely on to live better, healthier lives — from moisturisers, lipsticks and fragrances to sunscreens, soaps and anti-cavity toothpastes, these products are essential to today’s consumer lifestyles.

PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS

SYMPTOM RELIEF AND TREATMENT

Symptom Relief and Treatment – Symptom alleviation, cure of a condition and/or reduction of discomfort – from over the counter medicines (cough/cold/flu, digestive health products) to bandages, topical ointments and external pain relief.

DIRECTIVE 2002/46/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL

UV PROTECTION

UV protection is helping protect people from ultraviolet 5UV) exposure – the leading preventable risk factor of skin cancer.  Sunscreen protects the damaging effects of UV light in four ways – by reflecting UV, absorbing UV, decreasing UV and decreasing antioxidant damage created by UV.

AMERICAN ACADEMY OF DERMATOLOGY